February 22

Small Hands Of Moroccan Recycling Constant Heat

Small Hands Of Moroccan Recycling Constant Heat

Casablanca, Morocco, summer 2016. With the constant heat, often exceeding 30 degrees Celsius, garbage could quickly consume the four million inhabitants of the city. As visitors travel through the second-largest city in the Maghrebian region Small hands ensure. That huge quantities of garbage are not pile up on landfills by giving them new opportunities to live.

These women and men belong to a population which Anthropologist Delphine Corteel. As well as sociologist Stephane Le Lay (ERES, 2011) have described as waste workers. Despite their exhausting and demanding work, they remain apathetic from Moroccan society due. To the dirtiness of their work, as well as the way they live in their areas.

They live in the margins of urban areas that are legal as well as in slums and improvised houses. That are frequently destroy and threaten due to real estate or urban development projects. When they working on their streets, the people are frequently victimize by violence. Whether it is perpetrate by police or by the other residents.

The interviews we conducted were with numerous members of this community since the year 2011. Our aim was to prove that people who collect waste. Such as sorters semi-wholesalers and recyclers as well as transporters frequently view their work as a legitimate profession. And believe their work is crucial, particularly considering the fact that environmental issues. Have never been more important in the political agenda.

Three-Quarters Of The Household Heat

Based on our multi-site survey More than three-quarters of the household waste in Casablanca will not be rejected by landfills.

Instead of presenting a picture of adversity and exclusion We would like to present. This community free of the stigma that is often associated with the waste-related activities.

It is located on the outskirts of Casablanca and situated in an area of topographic deformity that is atop a hill, the Lahraouine district is almost inaccessible to the world. Many of the workers reside in nearby douars (slums) in which running water is not available and electricity is provided via electrical generators and illegal wiring.

A number of real estate developments have placed an on city officials to rehabilitate the district and rid of the garbage dumps. Because the waste collection companies don’t own their land and there’s no rehousing program the residents live in the fear of being evicted.

The boar (the word originates of the French word eboueur, which means garbage man) is a man who returns to the city on the same cart that is filled with his regular garbage collection. But the increase in containers that are bury in the wealthy areas of Casablanca restricts access to the waste resources.

Limit Their Heat Work

Most of the time the Bouara (plural for Bouar) must limit their work to the opening of bins in neighbourhoods that are primarily working class. They’re also more accepted within these zones than the central district of the city or middle-upper-class areas. In these areas the latter, police may harass them and even arrest them. They can also take their carts and donkeys.

Gelssas (a term that is derive from the verb gels, which translates to sitting down in darija the language spoken in the Maghreb region) are enclose spaces of various dimensions, surrounded with palisades (metal sheets or boards, tarps or dry waste that create walls) where the bouara collect their harvests after every city tour.

The collection sold according to weight and made up of plastics, cardboards glass, metals, textiles and vegetable waste. These valuable items that have been trade several times, eventually find their way to one of the flea markets in the city (joutiya). There is nothing that could be reuse remains.

The bouaras of Casablanca earns around EUR20 every day, however most of them have to rent their tools (cart or animals) through their managers at EUR2.

There are gelssas that can be utilize for recycling and sorting sites (plastics metal, wood and the rags) that are separate according to the type. Others specialize in a specific material, such as the case with plastic.

Collecting Heat After Sorting

After sorting and collecting after sorting, certain materials must be crush and compact to make them smaller and add value. These materials are then offer to wholesalers from the informal sector as well as to formal sectors via trucks or pick-ups that transport the garbage.

In Lahraouine We haven’t seen many women in the Gelssas. Of the 3,000 active recyclers we estimated most are males in their early 20s. We believed that there were 500-600 women. They are only assign sorting jobs.

The financial crisis in Morocco has resulted in an increase in garbage people in Casablanca.

Waste collectors are in large part from the countryside to get out of the slums of their homes. They are not all from remote villages in the Eastern regions of Casablanca.

Many, particularly youngsters tend to travel and come and go in accordance with the agricultural cycle. About 20% of the agriculture dependent rural population is in poverty or is in danger of becoming poor. These seasonal workers are house by their relatives within the douars in Lahraouine or in sheds that are located inside the gelssas.

Waste Collectors

The owner of this gelssa has a number of heat waste collectors. He owns several carts that are pull by donkeys or horse and is classify as a middle-income earner.

There is a clear distinction within the recycling industry. The lower levels are the basic bouaras or women who sort their recyclables and earn small incomes. On the other end of the upper range are the top bosses of big gelssas that own at least one truck and plastic crushers.

Gelssas’s managers are familiar about the value and cost of the materials available and stay up-to-date via the internet or mobile phones. They are well-aware of what, where and when to market to reap the most profit from their products.

February 22

Inside Sweden Housing Crisis Renovation Means Eviction

Inside Sweden Housing Crisis Renovation Means Eviction

The housing crisis in Sweden is so severe that people are thinking. Of making use of shipping containers to build apartments. Nine out of the ten Swedes reside in a city experiencing housing shortages.

According to a study conducted recently of Stockholm, the capital city of Stockholm. Over half one million people were waiting. For a house and it took an average of 11 years to obtain one. Recent immigrants including asylum seekers and tech professionals, are especially affect.

From the 60s onwards Sweden was associate since the 1960s with equality, social security. And prosperity and a model of universal housing with strong tenant rights, and high-quality housing standards. What can we do to understand the current scenario?

Between Boom And Bust Sweden

The long-lasting rule of social democratic government, that favored equality of rights. And decent working conditions, has led to extremely good living standards for the country. Following the Second World War, Swedish industry was booming as economic prosperity grew with consumer spending. And led to the substantial improvement in the living conditions.

From 1965 to 1975,, more than a million houses were construct across the country. In the Million Programmer, which saw Swedes get newly built rental housing. This was (and remains) the most popular type of tenure across the country.

However, the last few years have seen an increase in privation. Qhich resulted in the reduction of rental housing available in the country. From 95 percent in the 1950s, to 59% by 2015.

The 1990s saw changes were implemented that resulted in successive privations of housing for the public. Lower construction costs and the gradual elimination of state-funded subsidies in the building market.

In 2011, a new legislation was passed that required public housing providers to work. In accordance with the rules of business, or in terms of making revenue.

The result was that dwellings that were part of the housing stock owned by the public were offered. To tenants or private corporations, in order to earn profits and, at the very most theoretically for the purpose of building new homes and remove the issue of a growing stock.

Six years on from the introduction of the new law rents and prices of homes have risen dramatically. And the affordability crisis in urban areas is escalating.

Renoviction Sweden

The privatisation process opened up the way for businesses to make money from renters.

In the more than 650,000 homes constructed between during the 60s, 70s. The issue has been discuss in Sweden for several years since.

Although rents are not able to be increase without a reason that is significant in Sweden as they are collectively negosiate. It is an option for landlords make use of renovations to justify substantial increase.

Rents are able to raise if the remodeling results in improved living conditions (for instance, kitchen and bathroom renovations) in contrast to regular maintenance, landlords employ extensive renovations to generate a money.

Tenants’ consent is require for major renovations. Disputes can be resolve in the courts. In reality, landlords are likely to prevail in nine instances out of the ten.

Renovating homes, in turn causes relocation of those who cannot afford to live there. According to a recently published study by Gothenburg Rent increases by 50% after renovations caused the expulsion of at minimum 30% of tenants.

The current situation for public and private tenants who are unable to pay for huge rents as a result of renovations is astonishment.

Based on calculations made by The National Board of Housing, Building and Planning According to calculations by the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning tenants are more likely to relocate into areas that are less affluent, which contributes to the escalating the racial segregation that exists in Sweden.

Sweden Ikea City

The dramatic results of this policy can in the district of Hagsatra in the southern part of Stockholm. The district built during the 50s and 60s has a population of nearly 10,000.

The only public buildings in the area are a primary school along with a subway station as well as an athletics field. The remainder bought from private investment firms.

In 2012, 1200 houses were transfer in 2012 to Ikano Bostad, owned by the same company that owns IKEA which was the biggest property owner in the region. Hagsatra is refer to as the City of Ikea by some, because the first thing you notice as you exit the subway are the flags flying from Ikano.

The privatisation of homes in Hagsatra was receive with anger from residents in the area, who have rallied to protest against Ikano Bostad. They would like to remain residents of the public housing system and protested against the plans for a renovation program. Rents set to rise by 63 percent in the area; there is no way to know the number of tenants who are likely to be force out.

Assistance Of Urban Activists

A few tenants with the assistance of urban activists are fighting back against what activists and researchers have dubbed renoviction in Hagsatra.

In the year 2016, an empty classroom in Hagsatra was renovate and open for use as an informal meeting place for residents. It was clear that since the facility was not occupy show that tenants were unable to gather and mobilize.

Local officials have on the back on the decision of Hagsatra stated that it was necessary to enhance the protections for tenants under the law in the country.

In 2017, a study order from the Swedish government will be release regarding the enhancement of tenant rights who are facing renovation. For now tenants are waiting for the report to see what happens, and then improvise.

February 22

House Its Poorest Brazil Must Go Beyond Home Ownership

House Its Poorest Brazil Must Go Beyond Home Ownership

The mayor of Sao Paolo Brazil Fernando Haddad has a lot to complete before. He hand Brazil’s largest city over to the new city’s mayor Joao Doria on Dec. 31st on December 31, 2016. The most urgent thing is adopting his long-debated affordable housing plan.

The city’s housing crisis is particularly affecting the poorest residents. According to the most recent statistics that show at least 13,706 of the city’s most disadvantaged. Households those that earn under three-fifths of the minimum monthly salary of $250 reside in slums or settlements for squatters. Another 53,214 are sharing the housing with other families and 22,297 families live in cramped living conditions.

Affordable housing is an essential element of Mayor Haddad’s master plans of Sao Paulo. Which was applaud during the United Nations Habitat 3 conference. In October due to its emphasis in social urbanism. To address the demands of 1.2 million people who are homeless or insecurely housed residents, the plan demands. The improvement of slums and the granting of the right to land to residents and the demolition of structures. And new construction, and, most importantly rent subsidy.

The bill is schedule to be vote on by the city’s legislature within the next couple of weeks. But if it is approve, there’s not a guarantee that it will put into effect. Doria won the election by pledging to steer his city’s direction in different ways from. His former Workers’ Party counterpart who was the city’s urban development secretary. He has already pledged to improve the housing regulations to make them more appealing to real estate developers.

My Home Brazil My Life, My Struggle

In Brazil the policy of home ownership hasn’t been able to create housing for the nation’s most disadvantaged. Contrary to those in the United States and Europe. Where a large portion of the housing stock was government-own. Rental properties, Brazilian policy favors people purchasing, not renting homes.

Federal Minha Casa Minha Vida programmer My Home My Home was launch in 2009, is design. To help people get a home through high-quality subsidies and monthly instalments that are low. So far, 2.6 million units have been construct

The poorest households are faced with numerous challenges to owning a home. Minha Casa Minha Vida has made it easier to comply with the legal requirements of contracts. Since people who are employed in the informal economy. Typically are unable to provide proof of income and other documents required.

Families who make a meagre incomes from jobs that are not formal such as street vendors. Domestics or street workers might find it equally difficult to remain at home. As per the research of the University of So Paolo’s LabCidade Urban Planning research institute. Poorest-earning Minha Casa Minha Vida beneficiaries have to pay for even lower costs for utilities and condo fees.

Brazil Remain In Their Houses

For the poor who remain in their houses, Minha Casa Minha Vida has accidentally pushed many into urban exile. This LabCidade report found that the majority of the program’s biggest-city units. That are the most affordable are in the suburbs in areas where prices for land are less. This means that many of the most disadvantaged beneficiaries are far from jobs in downtown areas and public transportation.

Homebuyers who choose to purchase homes that are located more centrally in costly cities are often prone to succumbing quickly to pressure on real estate. Sao Paulo real estate prices increased by 153 percent between 2009 and 2012. Many of the beneficiaries sell their properties in indirect transfer of public funds to families that are better off and the most disadvantaged remain in substandard living conditions.

A home-ownership strategy that is affordable home option has the negative of limiting mobility of residents. This means that unemployed or house owners who are not employed are less able to explore jobs, since they’re tied to a certain area for the medium or long-term.

You Have A Roof To Cover Your Head, Or A Roof That You Own?

In order for Brazil to meet the needs of its most vulnerable citizens, it has to complement the home ownership system with other options for accessing housing. Rent subsidies, such as the ones proposed in Haddad’s housing policy are crucial. However, I’m also watching the world for models that are successful that Brazil could copy.

Collective ownership, where residents share ownership of properties as affordable housing model that is popular in Uruguay as well as the other Latin American countries. Co-ops have many advantages for Brazil because of its well-organized housing movement and squatters who have a lot of abandoned buildings throughout the country.

Community-based land trusts, which fund non-profit organizations to construct and oversee housing development for the benefit of a community, can also be beneficial. This model has been effective in providing affordable access to land and housing in the US as well as trials in Kenya as well as elsewhere as per the United Nations.

There are also housing developments. Despite its flaws it is it is a good example of how to build housing. New York City Housing Authority is a great instance of a successful, affordable housing policy. Just having a municipality charged with housing for the public is quite an achievement; Brazil has nothing of such. It also has a system to select tenants, managing finances of public property and, more importantly, allows those with low incomes to reside in high-end neighborhoods.

Mixed Brazil Outcomes According

Sao Paulo does have some expertise in this field, but with mixed outcomes according to my research. In 2002, the city transformed six public housing units which included Parque do Gato Cat’s Park, for people who were unemployed and moved from slums and Vila of Idosos Seniors Village to house retirees.

The former is currently in poor repair. It was not accompanied with a job-training program and around 70 percent of residents are in a position to afford maintenance costs. Seniors Village, on the other hand, is maintained and the retirees fixed incomes have been able to maintain their payments to the current date.

Brazil’s only investment in purchasing real estate to build new homes as a part of its cheap housing strategy has not taken into account the needs of its most disadvantaged citizens and has inflated the real estate market according to a 2014 study, benefiting primarily owners and investors and making it even more difficult for the low-income population to access adequate housing.

If the Mayor-elect Doria doesn’t consider alternatives like full rent subsidies or co-ops, as well as public housing He will fail Sao Paulo by repeating mistakes made by Minha Casa Minha Vida. The government is not a corporation. A city that only cares about efficiency and profits does it at the expense practical solutions to complex problems.